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Pune IVF Centre is one of the best IVF centers in Pune with the largest team of Gynecologists and Embryologists in one place.
Male infertility can be anything from low sperm to no sperm. There are multiple solutions for infertility. But let us first dwell into the cause of male infertility.
Main causes of male infertility are as follows:
The commonest sperms disorders could be mild to moderate reduction in the sperm count, mild to moderate reduction in motility of the sperms and abnormal shaped sperms.
Sometimes lifestyle choices lead to lower sperm count. Excessive alcohol consumption, and taking certain medicines can lower your sperm count.
Long term sickness, childhood infections and hormonal issues can lead to drop in sperm count.
Damage of the reproductive system can lower the sperm count or it can result in no sperms.
4 out of 10 men lack sperms (azoospermia) or can have an obstruction (blockage) in the tube. Birth defect or infection can cause blockage.
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When veins in the scrotum swell it’s called Varicoceles. 16 out of 100 men can face this problem. This is common among infertile men and it harms the sperm growth by blocking proper blood drainage.
Varicoceles causes the blood to flow back to your scrotum from the belly. Testicles become too warm to make sperms. This results in low sperm count.
This is not a common cause and it means that no semen fluid is released during the climax. This is not a common cause and it means that no semen fluid is released during the climax. It can be cause by:
This is not the common cause of infertility in 2 percent patients. This issue is diagnosed by a semen test. Infection in semen can lower the chances of the sperm fertilizing the egg.
Often medications can treat this issue. If these treatments fail other options are the Non pharmacologic therapies:
(GnRH) is a hormone that is produced by hypothalamus. When testicles lack stimulation by the pituitary hormones it leads to Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. It is caused by problems in the pituitary or hypothalamus.
It might be present since birth and becomes apparent during puberty.
Congenital form is also known as Kallmann’s syndrome, which is caused by low gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).
It can be triggered due to health problems like:
Generally, MRI shows a clear picture of the pituitary gland.
When pituitary gland makes too much of hormone prolactin it is called Hyperprolactinemia. It causes infertility and erectile dysfunction. Pituitary tumors can be treated through medicines or surgery may be required.
Some men can have genetic conditions that may be denovo or hereditary.No sperm in the ejaculation or azoospermia can be genetic where the condition affects sperm production. Genetic conditions can impact the development of the male reproductive tract that carries sperm, which results in failure of sperm production.
Azoospermia due to blockages can be treated by surgeries like:
Vasovasostomy is used to undo a vasectomy. It joins the 2 cut parts of the vas deferens in the testicles.
This process joins the upper end of the vas deferens to the epididymis and this treats epididymal blocks.
Ejaculatory duct blockage is treated with surgery. Ejaculatory duct blockage is treated with surgery by making a small incision in the ejaculated duct and a cystoscope is passed into the urethra. This helps in retaining the sperms into the semen.
In this procedure the sperms are processed in order to improve the motility of the sperms, remove the dead sperms from the semen so that highly motile sperm concentrate can be placed in the female partner’s uterus with the help of soft flexible catheter at the time of ovulation. This procedure is not at all painful.
In this process the ovaries are stimulated to produce multiple eggs with the help of medicines and daily hormonal injections. This helps to retrieve the mature eggs, later these eggs are allowed to fertilize with the sperms in the Petri dish in the IVF lab.
When they grow in 3 to 5 days, the fertilized egg (embryo) is placed in the uterus. IVF is used to treat certain hormonal conditions, and blocked fallopian tubes that lead to infertility.
Men with severe and untreatable oligospermia or low sperm count can be treated by using the IVF method.
It has brought revolution to the male infertility treatment. A tiny needle is used to inject single sperm into the egg. When the egg fertilizes, it is placed in the female partner’s uterus. If the semen quality is extremely poor then ICSI can be the best bet.
If there are no sperms in the semen due to blockage or testicular failure then sperms can be taken from the testicle or epididymis by one of the following surgical methods and ICSI can be performed.
In order to retrieve sperms in cases of obstructive or non-obstructive azoospermia many microsurgical methods can be used. These methods aim at getting the best quality sperms directly from the testicles.
A commonest technique used to diagnose cause of azoospermia is TESE. The sperm sourced from the testicle can be used fresh or frozen. At times multiple biopsies may have to be done.
A more advanced form of this method is microTESE. In this method an operating microscope is used to detect small areas of sperm production in the testicles of men who have azoospermia.
This method is used to diagnose azoospermia. Sometimes it can be used to collect sperm from the testicles.
Local or general anesthesia is given during PESA. The fluid is withdrawn by sticking a needle into the epididymis. At times sperm may not be taken out this way. Rather an open surgery might be needed.
Sperms are retrieved from the epididymal tubes. A surgical microscope is used in this method and it sources high amounts of motile sperm that can be frozen and thawed to be used for ICSI.
Often diabetes causes low sperm count or high DNA fragmentation index of the sperm.
Similarly, hypertension, high cholesterol levels, infections and fevers, metabolic disorders, and smoking can impact the sperm count.
Sexually transmitted diseases can block the reproductive tract.
Genetic conditions like cystic fibrosis can cause absences of seminal vesicles that can lead to no sperm in the ejaculate. Certain medical conditions lead to infertility thus its vital that you and your partner disclose family and personal health histories to the doctor you are consulting.
Body building steroids do affect the male’s ability to produce hormones needed to make good quality and quantity of sperms.
Not necessarily. The risk of conceiving a child with birth defects is the same for everyone, whether it’s a natural conception or IVF conception. Some genetic causes of infertility might lead to birth defects in the offspring. PGS can help us to detect these genetic abnormalities prior to the conception.
Thus, couples should undergo thorough examination and take expert advice before they start any form of ART.
Regular smoking impacts sperm count and quality. It harms their DNA. Smoking does impact the sperm quality and quantity drastically and it harms the DNA further affecting the fertilizing capacity of the sperm.
Yes, cell phone radiations have been observed to drastically impact male fertility by damaging the DNA in the sperm.
Increased weight in male has been found to impact the testosterone level thereby producing poor quality sperms and perpetually reducing fertility as compared to normal BMI males.
There is a possibility that Vitamin D, Vitamin B12 and other micronutrients affect sperm motility and fertility potential. Males with optimum Vitamin levels have better fertility potential.
There are so may ways to start your fertility journey.
Please choose the path that best suits your stage, or give us a call for guidance.