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IVF क्या है? और कैसे किया जाता है? | IVF Procedure In Hindi

– Published on 02 Feb 2024 

How IVF Procedure is Performed?

IVF, or In Vitro Fertilization, is an assisted reproductive technology used when natural conception is challenging. In cases where the body struggles to fertilize the egg naturally, IVF allows fertilization to occur in a laboratory setting. Once the egg is fertilized, the resulting embryos are transferred to the woman’s uterus.

The IVF Process

The IVF journey is meticulously planned and executed, involving several steps:

 Step 1: Hormonal Stimulation

The IVF journey begins in earnest with hormonal stimulation, a critical phase that sets the stage for egg retrieval. Here’s a closer look at this step:

  • Timing: Hormonal stimulation usually starts around the second or third day of the woman’s menstrual cycle. This timing is chosen to sync with the natural cycle of the body.
  • The Role of Hormones: The injections given during this phase contain fertility hormones, typically Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and sometimes Luteinizing Hormone (LH). These hormones are crucial for stimulating the ovaries to produce multiple eggs, rather than the single egg typically released during a normal menstrual cycle.
  • Personalization of Treatment: Each woman’s body is unique, and so is her response to hormonal stimulation. Therefore, the dosage and combination of hormones are carefully decided based on factors like age, body mass index (BMI), and ovarian reserve (the number and quality of eggs available in the ovaries). This personalized approach helps optimize the response while minimizing risks like Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS), where the ovaries swell and become painful.
  • Monitoring Response: Throughout this phase, the response to the hormonal treatment is closely monitored. This involves blood tests to check hormone levels and transvaginal ultrasounds to observe the development of ovarian follicles (where eggs develop).

 Step 2: Monitoring Egg Development

After stimulating the ovaries, the next vital step is to monitor the development of eggs. This is done through:

  • Regular Sonography: Also known as ultrasound scans, these are done transvaginally. A small ultrasound probe is inserted into the vagina to get a clear view of the ovaries and the developing follicles.
  • Assessing Follicle Growth: The main aim of these scans is to track the growth and number of follicles. Each follicle potentially contains one egg. The growth of these follicles is a good indicator of how the eggs are maturing.
  • Determining the Right Time for Retrieval: The size of the follicles is a key factor in deciding when to retrieve the eggs. Typically, when most of the follicles reach a certain size (usually around 18-20 millimeters in diameter), it’s a sign that the eggs are mature and ready for retrieval.
  • Administering Trigger Shot: Once the eggs are deemed ready, a final hormone injection, often referred to as the ‘trigger shot,’ is given. This shot is crucial as it helps the eggs complete their maturation and start the process of ovulation.
  • Timing is Everything: The timing of the egg retrieval is carefully planned, usually around 36 hours after the trigger shot, to ensure the eggs are collected at the optimal time for fertilization.

 Step 3: Egg Retrieval Procedure

Once the eggs have matured to the right size, the next crucial step in the IVF process is the egg retrieval procedure. Here’s what this involves:

  • Under Anesthesia: The procedure is done under anesthesia to ensure the comfort of the woman. It’s a short and generally well-tolerated process.
  • The Retrieval Process: A thin needle is passed through the vaginal wall and into the ovaries using ultrasound guidance. This needle is used to gently aspirate the fluid from the follicles, which contains the eggs.
  • Precision and Care: It’s a delicate process that requires precision. The goal is to retrieve as many mature eggs as possible while ensuring the safety and well-being of the woman.
  • Post-Procedure: After the procedure, women may experience some cramping or discomfort, but this usually resolves quickly. Most women can return home the same day.
  • Assessing the Eggs: The retrieved eggs are immediately taken to the IVF lab, where they are identified and assessed for quality and maturity.

 Step 4: Sperm Collection

Simultaneously, or sometimes in advance, sperm is collected from the male partner. Here’s a look at this process:

  • Collection Method: The most common method for collecting sperm is through masturbation and ejaculation into a sterile container. This is usually done at the fertility clinic to ensure the sample is fresh.
  • Timing: Ideally, the sperm collection is timed to coincide with the egg retrieval. Fresh sperm is preferred for fertilization, though frozen sperm can also be used if necessary.
  • Preparing the Sperm: Once collected, the sperm sample undergoes a process called sperm washing. This process separates healthy, motile sperm from the rest of the semen fluid and is crucial for the success of IVF.
  • Considerations for Low Sperm Count: In cases of low sperm count or motility issues, advanced techniques like Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) may be used, where a single sperm is injected directly into an egg.

Step 5: Fertilization in the Lab

After egg retrieval and sperm collection, the next crucial step in the IVF process is fertilization, which occurs in a highly specialized laboratory setting. Here’s a deeper look into this phase:

  • Combining Eggs and Sperm: The retrieved eggs and prepared sperm are placed together in a petri dish. If using conventional IVF methods, the sperm naturally penetrates and fertilizes the egg. In cases where sperm quality is an issue, a single sperm may be injected into each egg through a process called Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI).
  • Mimicking Natural Conditions: The lab environment is meticulously controlled to replicate the conditions of the human body. This includes maintaining optimal temperature, humidity, and pH levels to provide the best possible environment for fertilization.
  • Monitoring Development: The embryologists closely monitor the eggs to confirm that fertilization has occurred and to observe the early development of the embryos. This usually takes about 24 hours.
  • Selecting the Best Embryos: Not all fertilized eggs will develop into healthy embryos. The embryologists evaluate the embryos based on specific criteria like cell division rate and appearance to select the most viable ones for transfer.

Step 6: Embryo Transfer

Embryo transfer is a pivotal moment in the IVF process where the embryos are placed into the woman’s uterus. Here’s what this involves:

  • Timing is Key: The transfer is typically done 3-5 days after fertilization, depending on the embryo development and the specific protocol of the IVF clinic.
  • The Transfer Procedure: The procedure is usually painless and does not require anesthesia. A thin catheter, loaded with the selected embryos, is gently inserted through the cervix into the uterus. Using ultrasound guidance, the embryos are released into the uterine cavity.
  • Number of Embryos Transferred: The number of embryos transferred is a decision made based on various factors including the age of the woman, the quality of the embryos, and previous IVF attempts. The goal is to maximize the chances of pregnancy while minimizing the risk of multiple pregnancies.

Post-Transfer Care: After the transfer, the woman may be advised to rest for a short period. However, normal daily activities can typically be resumed fairly quickly. 

   Also Read :  IVF procedure step by step 

Wrapping Up

IVF is more than just a medical procedure; it’s a journey of hope for many couples struggling with infertility. Understanding the IVF process demystifies the journey and can provide comfort and clarity to those considering this path. Remember, while IVF has helped countless couples achieve their dream of parenthood, it’s a deeply personal decision that should be made with comprehensive advice from medical professionals.

By Dr Samidha Dalvi-Amale

IVF and Fertility specialist Medical Director- Pune IVF

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